Exception to Article 15(1) and 15(2)

According to Article 15(3), nothing in Article 15 prevents the state from taking specific measures for women and children. As a result

The court upheld it in Choki vs. State of Rajasthan on the grounds that it makes specific provisions for women and thus falls under Article 15 protection (3). The constitution (1st...learn more

Special Provisions are made

The improvement of socially and educationally backward classes, as well as for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) [Article15(4)].

Balaji v. State of Mysore (AIR 1963)

The Supreme Court ruled in this case that the order's sub-classification of "backward classes" and "more backward classes" was unjustified under

How far “backward” and “more backward” classification is valid?

Article 15 of the Constitution does not allow for the differentiation between backward and more...learn more

Supreme Court of India ruled in Indira Sawhney vs. Union of India that backward and more backward classes can be classified & it is constitutionally acceptable....learn more

Cases related Article 15 very important to understand

1. Nainsuphdas vs. State of U.P. (AIR-1953)

A law prohibiting members of various faith communities from voting in...learn more

2. Shamsher Singh vs. U.O.I (AIR-1970)

In this decision, the court decided that only reasonable accommodations in favour of women can be made under...learn more

3. D.P Joshi vs. St

It was said that place of residence is a valid criteria for classification and if some college charges less fee to locally domiciled students and...learn more

4. Valsamma Paul vs. Coachin Univerity (AIR-1996)

The court ruled in this case that a girl from a high caste marrying a boy from an SC/ST family is not eligible for...learn more

5. The Constitution (93rd Amendment) Act, 2005

The Constitution (93rd Amendment) Act of 2005 modified Article 15, adding a new clause (5). Insofar as such legislation relates to...learn more

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