The state shall not make any discrimination (unfairness) among the citizens on the ground of:-


Exceptions to Article 16(1) and 16(2)

Under Art- 16(3), Parliament may take a law to prescribe a requirement as to residence within a State or Union territory for eligibility to be...learn more

A.V.S. Narsimha Rao v. State of Andhra Pradesh (AIR-1970)

The Supreme Court declared that part of the Act unconstitutional which prescribed a residence qualification for govt. services in...learn more

Important cases to understand Article 16

Balbir Kaur vs. Steel Authority of India Ltd. (AIR 2000 SC 1596)

In this case, the apex court held that appointment on compassionate grounds of...learn more

Shiv Charan Singh vs. State of Mysore (AIR-1965)

Provisions for compulsory retirement of govt servants in public interests do not infringe Articles....learn more

Randhir Singh vs. Union of India (AIR-1982)

It has been held that equal pay for equal work although not expressly declared to be a Fundamental right is clearly constitutional under....learn more

Devdason vs. Union of India (AIR-1964)

The Supreme Court by a majority of 4 to 1 struck down the carry forward rule as unconstitutional on the ground that the power.....learn more

Akhil Bhartiya Sashit Karamchari vs. Union of India

In this case, while overruling the T. Devadasan case, S.C held that the carry forward rule is valid. Court held that the ceiling....learn more

N.M Thomas vs. State of Kerala

It was held that reservation in promotion is valid..... tap learn more button for reading full article & will get some other related articles

Landmark judgment (Indira Sawhney case) Known as Mandal Commission

Justice B.P. Jeevan Reddy, it was a constitutional bench judgment ratio 6:3 (Mandal Commission). Mandal case is.....tap on learn more

E.P. Royappa vs. State of Tamil Nadu 1974 S.C

In this case, justice Bhagwati has held that the concept of equality is not limited only to the concept of reasonable.....tap on learn more

Ajay Hasia vs. Khalid Mushis 1981

S.C, justice Bhagwati held that arbitrariness is antithetical to equality. Equality and arbitrariness cannot go hand in hand.....tap on learn more