hierarchy of Indian courts

The hierarchy of Indian courts is structured in a hierarchical manner, with each level having its own jurisdiction and scope. The Indian judicial system is divided into two main categories: civil and criminal.



Indian Courts

Supreme Court of India

The Supreme Court of India is the country's highest court and is located in New Delhi. S.C has advisory, appellate and original jurisdiction. It hears appeals from the High Courts as well as from lower courts, and also has the power to review decisions of its own.

High Courts

In India, each state has its own H.C. The High Court has appellate jurisdiction over all subordinate courts and tribunals within its jurisdiction. The High Court also has the power to issue writs under Article 226 of the Indian Constitution.

District Courts

Each district in India has its own District Court, which is the highest court in the district. District Courts have original jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, and they also hear appeals from subordinate courts.

Subordinate Courts

Subordinate courts are courts that are below the District Court in the hierarchy. They include courts of the Additional District Judge, Civil Judge, and Judicial Magistrate. Subordinate courts have limited jurisdiction and can only hear cases within their territorial jurisdiction.

Specialized Courts and Tribunals

India also has several specialized courts and tribunals, such as the National Company Law Tribunal, National Green Tribunal, and the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal. These courts have exclusive jurisdiction over certain areas of law.

Overall, the Indian judiciary has a well-structured hierarchy of courts, which enables citizens to access justice at various levels.


HIerarchy of Indian courts