Introduction of the Bailable, Non-Bailable & Anticipatory Bail under CrPC 1973: – In the code, the word “bail” is not defined. Bail is originated from the French verb “Baillier,” which means “to give”. It implies to release an imprisoned individual to his sureties. In a general sense, it is a procedure for releasing a person who has been detained or arrested by appropriate authorities and who has been asked to provide security in exchange for his appearance in court on a specific day.
According to CrPC, offences/crimes can be categorized as bailable or non-bailable, with the former referring to bailable offences for which bail can be issued to the accused, on the other side, non-bailable offences refer to offences for which bail cannot be issued under normal conditions.
Bail is when the suspected is released from police detention and entrusted to sureties, with the condition that the accused be presented to answer the claimed charge at the given date & time. As a result, bail is nothing more than the accused’s freedom.
Definition of an Offence
Any conduct that is considered an offence by law is considered an offence. The offence is defined as any conduct that infringes on the personal rights of others or causes injury to others and is so hazardous that it impacts society as a whole. “Any wrongful act considered illegal & punishable by any legislation for the time being in force, including any act whereby a formal complaint may be lodged u/s 20 of the Cattle-trespass Act, 1871,” as per sec 2(n) of CrPC.
What exactly is bail?
Bail is a legal device that ensures an accused’s appearance in court when the court so orders. The term Bail is not defined in the CrPC, but it is simply an agreement in which a person makes a written commitment to the court to come before it wherever it’s necessary and also to adhere to any terms imposed by the agreement. He/she also promises to forfeit a certain amount of money if the person does not obey the agreement’s terms and conditions.
Offences or crimes that are bailable are ones that are not particularly severe or heinous. In such instances, bail is a constitutional right, and the offender should be released after submitting the money to the authority. In these cases, the authorities have the authority to grant bail. Bail may be issued on the execution of a “surety bond,” even without the deposit of sureties.
The “Bail Bond” may include terms & conditions including such: the alleged perpetrator or accused can not leave the state’s territorial jurisdiction without the permission/ approval of the court or a law enforcement officer. The accused must appear in front of a police officer every time, he is summoned. The Accused would not misuse any evidence considered by police as part of an investigation.
Even if the offence is bailable, the court has the right to approve or deny bail for an alleged perpetrator if the individual is released on bail unable to abide with the surety bond’s criteria.
Bailable Offences Examples
The following are the examples of Bailable Offences under IPC: –
- Bribery in the context of elections.
- Being a part of an illegal assembly.
- Rioting while wielding a lethal weapon.
- Creating a disturbance in a religious gathering.
- In relation to elections, a false statement was made.
- In a legal procedure, giving or creating false evidence.
- “obstructing the execution of a state servant’s official duties”.
- Knowing that any food or drink sold as food or drink is noxious.
- When a public servant demands that you take an oath, you refuse.
- Disobedience of a lawful order by a public servant with the aim to injure another person.
In a Bailable Offense, you have the right to be released on bail
When a person is detained without a warrant, the police officer is required by Section 50 of the Crpc to provide the whole information of the crime for which the offender was apprehended. If the crime they committed is bailable, the law enforcement officer must also advise the offender that he or she has the opportunity to be released on bail.
When an alleged perpetrator of a bailable offence is apprehended without a warrant and is able to give bail, they should be discharged on bond, as per Section 436 of the Crpc. The officer or the Court has the authority to impose the bail amount.
These offences are heinous crimes for which release on bail is a right guaranteed only by the courts. When a person is arrested and brought into jail for a serious or non-bailable offence, he or she does not have the right to ask for bail.
In general, the court can deny or reject the bail if:
If a “Bail Bond” has not been properly completed, or if the offence committed is one that carries a death sentence or a life sentence, such as “murder and rape”,” or if the accused person has attempted to escape and his credentials are questionable,
The request for bail must be presented to the Magistrate with the assistance of a criminal defence lawyer who is handling the case.
The initial application is commonly presented the day before it is filed. On that day, the application would be processed &heard, and the officers would also present the accused before the magistrate. The court has the ability to give any orders he deems appropriate.
Non-Bailable Offense Examples
The foregoing are several illustrations of IPC
- Dowry Death.
- Attempt to murder.
- Voluntary causing grievous hurt etc.
In non-bailable offences, the right to be given bail
An individual who commits a heinous crime doesn’t even have the opportunity to be granted bail, but if certain circumstances mentioned in Sec 437 of the CrPC are met, the court may issue bail.
If a person is arrested for a non-bailable offence, they are not eligible to be granted bail if there is sufficient reason to think that the individual is guilty of an offence punishable by death or life imprisonment. If the suspect is below the age of 16, he or she may be released on bond.
Bail Application for a Non-Bailable Offence
In the instance of a non-bailable offence, an application must be submitted explaining the merits for bail. If the court determines that bail must be granted, it issues an order after a hearing. A security bond must be filed in order to be granted bail for a bailable or non-bailable offence. The surety is the person who files the bail bond. The assurance is a person who accepts responsibility for bringing the accused before the court or the investigative agency as necessary.
Cash & Personal Bond Security
In rare circumstances, upon granted bail, the court orders a personal bond as well as cash security.
The value of each bond executed shall be conducted in accordance with the facts of the case.
Cancellation of Bail
On an application made by the complainant or the prosecution, a High Court or Court of Session may order the arrest and detention of any individual who has been granted bail.
If a person is concerned that he will be apprehended on the charge of a non-bailable offence, he may make an application to the High Court or the Court of Session for bail u/s 438 of the CrPC. Bail will be granted at the Court’s discretion, subject to various conditions, including that the individual:
- Make no intimidation, or promise to anyone in order to get him to reveal any relevant evidence to the Court or any law enforcement officer.
- Do not leave India without first obtaining permission from the Court.
Procedure for Anticipatory Bail
To seek bail u/s 437 or 438 of the CrPC, the accused must submit Form No. 45 in the First Schedule & apply for bail. Following that, it will be up to the Court to decide to choose whether or not granted the bail plea.
Significant difference between bailable & non-bailable offence
|Bailable Offence||Non-Bailable Offence|
|1. It is provided u/s2(a) of the CrPC as an offence specified as bailable in the 1st schedule or considered bailable by any other statute in accordance with the relevant.||1. It is also stated in sec 2(a) of the CrPC as any other offence that is not bailable.|
|2. Less serious in nature.||2. More serious & heinous in nature.|
|3. In general, these are those with a sentence of three years or less. Although, there are certain extenuating circumstances to this rule.||3. Non-bailable carry harsh penalties that include life imprisonment.|
|4. U/s 436 of CrPC, there is a provision for a bailable offence||4. U/s 437 of the CrPC, there is a provision for non-bailable offences.|
|5. In Rasiklal v. Kishore Wadhwani, the apex court declared that the ability to obtain bail provided by u/s 436 in a bailable offence is an essential and inalienable freedom.||5. The apex court held in Mansab Ali v. Irsan that because the jurisdiction is discretionary, it must be used with utmost care & prudence, balancing an individual’s valuable right to liberty with the welfare of the community at large.|
Conclusion of the Bailable Non-Bailable and Anticipatory Bail
CrPC gives no rationale for the distinction between bailable & non-bailable offences. As a result, the offences covered by the two categories have a basic discretionary categorization. As a result, it is reasonable to conclude that all heinous crimes belong under the category of non-bailable offences, while less heinous crimes come within the category of bailable offences.