Three new criminal laws notified by the Centre will be enforced from July 1st

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Introduction of New Legislation

The government has announced the introduction of three new criminal laws – Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS), and Bharatiya Saksha Adhiniyam (BSA). These laws are slated to replace the outdated colonial-era Indian Penal Code (IPC), Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), and the Indian Evidence Act.

Commencement Date

Effective from July 1st of this year, these new laws will mark a significant departure from the legal framework established during the colonial period.

Purpose of Reform

The enactment of BNS, BNSS, and BSA signals a concerted effort by the government to modernize India’s legal system and bring it in line with contemporary needs and values.

Replacement of Colonial Codes

The decision to replace the IPC, CrPC, and the Indian Evidence Act underscores a departure from laws that were formulated during the British rule and have since been criticized for being outdated and inadequate.

Implications of the Reform

With the implementation of these new laws, India is poised to witness a comprehensive overhaul of its criminal justice system, promising more relevance, efficiency, and justice for its citizens.

Government’s Announcement

The Centre’s announcement on Saturday solidifies its commitment to reforming the legal landscape, marking a milestone in India’s journey towards a more progressive and equitable legal framework.

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) issued notifications for the new laws separately late Friday evening.

The notification for BNS stated, “By virtue of the authority granted under sub-section (2) of section 1 of the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023 (45 of 2023), the Central Government hereby designates July 1st, 2024 as the commencement date for the provisions of the aforementioned Sanhita, with the exception of sub-section (2) of section 106.” Similar notifications were issued for BNSS and BSA.

Last month, the ministry announced that nationwide implementation of the legislation’s provisions in all police stations will commence within a year. Initially, the laws will be enforced in Union territories such as Chandigarh and Delhi.

To expedite the familiarization of police nationwide with the new laws, which heavily incorporate technology and forensic techniques, the government is actively procuring 900 forensic laboratories and arranging trainers from various disciplines, according to officials familiar with the matter.

Directives from the Annual Director Generals of Police Conference

At the annual Director Generals of Police conference held in Jaipur in January, Union Home Minister Amit Shah urged police chiefs to organize training sessions for officers across all ranks, from the Director General of Police (DGP) to the Station House Officer (SHO). He also stressed the significance of modernizing technology, advocating for upgrades from the grassroots level of local police stations up to the central police headquarters. These measures are deemed crucial for the effective enforcement of the three new criminal laws.

Amit Shah’s Role in Steering Controversial Legislation through Parliament

Amit Shah spearheaded the drafting and introduction of the three laws, sparking intense debate in Parliament in December of the preceding year.

The initial draft legislation was presented in Parliament on August 11, 2023, before being referred to a parliamentary standing committee for review. Following deliberations, several recommendations from the panel were integrated into the legislation. Subsequently, a revised set of bills, labeled as the second iteration, was tabled on December 12, 2023.

The trio of bills encompasses significant modifications concerning offenses related to terrorism and actions against the state. They facilitate the registration of electronic First Information Reports (FIRs), address corruption within election procedures, and elevate electronic evidence to a primary form of proof.

Enhanced Definition and Punishments for Specific Crimes

For the first time, crimes such as lynching have been distinctly delineated, accompanied by comprehensive provisions and stricter penalties for offenses targeting women and children.

Transition to Electronic Records and Victim Information

Under the new legislation, records will primarily be generated and supplied in electronic formats, including zero-FIR, e-FIR, and charge sheets, with victims receiving information in digital form.

Establishment and Scope of the Directorate of Prosecution

A significant addition to the new laws is the inclusion of provisions pertaining to the Directorate of Prosecution, which outline the eligibility criteria, functions, and powers of various authorities operating within it.

The delineation of duties and responsibilities for prosecuting officers across different levels was established to ensure seamless coordination. Furthermore, a new provision has been introduced, allowing prosecutors to supervise investigations during the initial phase.


The forthcoming enforcement of three new criminal laws in India marks a watershed moment in the nation’s legal landscape. With a focus on updating outdated laws, enhancing efficiency, and aligning with contemporary values, these reforms are poised to bring about a comprehensive overhaul of the criminal justice system. As India gears up for this transformative change, the government’s commitment to reforming the legal framework and ensuring its effective implementation underscores a crucial milestone in the nation’s journey towards a more progressive and equitable society.

Frequently asked questions

What are the three new criminal laws introduced by the Centre?

The three new criminal laws introduced are Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS), and Bharatiya Saksha Adhiniyam (BSA).

When will these new laws come into force?

These laws will be enforced from July 1st, marking a significant departure from the colonial-era legal framework.

What laws are these new legislations replacing?

The new laws are set to replace outdated colonial-era statutes, including the Indian Penal Code (IPC), Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), and the Indian Evidence Act.

What is the purpose of introducing these reforms?

The enactment of these new laws signifies a concerted effort by the government to modernize India’s legal system and bring it in line with contemporary needs and values.

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