Collegium System of Judicial Appointments: A Critical Analysis

Collegium System of Judicial Appointments- A Critical Analysis

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The collegium system of judicial appointments has been a prominent feature of India’s judiciary since the 1990s. It involves a process wherein a group of senior judges decides the appointment and elevation of judges to higher courts. The collegium system was introduced to safeguard judicial independence from the executive, but it has faced criticism and debate over its transparency and effectiveness. In this article, we will delve into the Collegium system, its evolution, its advantages, criticisms, and suggestions for reform.

Evolution of the Collegium System

The collegium system emerged as a response to the government’s attempt to assert its control over judicial appointments through the constitutional amendment, which introduced the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) in 2014. However, the Supreme Court, in 2015, struck down the NJAC as unconstitutional and upheld the primacy of the Collegium system, asserting that it is an essential aspect of the judiciary’s independence.

Judicial appointments and the Collegium system under the Indian Constitution

Under the Indian Constitution, the process of appointing and transferring judges to the higher judiciary is primarily governed by Articles 124, 217, and 222. These provisions outline the roles and responsibilities of different authorities involved in the judicial appointment process.

Article 124

This article deals with the appointment of judges to the Supreme Court of India. It empowers the President of India to appoint judges to the Supreme Court in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI) and other senior judges as he may deem necessary.

Article 217

This article deals with the appointment of judges to the High Courts in India. It grants the President the power to appoint High Court judges in consultation with the CJI, the Governor of the concerned state, and the Chief Justice of the High Court.

Article 222

 This article deals with the transfer of High Court judges. It empowers the President to transfer a judge from one High Court to another after consultation with the CJI.

The collegium system of judicial appointments, which was introduced through various landmark judgments of the Supreme Court, plays a significant role in the practical implementation of these constitutional provisions. As per the Collegium system, the CJI, along with a collegium of senior judges, is primarily responsible for recommending candidates for appointments and elevations to the higher judiciary, as well as for transfers of judges.

The Collegium’s recommendations are considered binding on the executive, and the President of India makes appointments accordingly. The objective behind the Collegium system is to ensure greater independence of the judiciary from the executive in matters of judicial appointments and to preserve the separation of powers as envisaged by the Indian Constitution.

Reforming the Collegium System

Transparency Measures

Introducing more transparency in the Collegium system, such as publishing reasons for appointments and elevation, can enhance public trust and confidence in the judiciary.

Diverse Representation

Ensuring regional and gender diversity in judicial appointments can address the perception of regional imbalances and bring varied perspectives to the judiciary.

Collegium-Executive Interface

Establishing a collaborative mechanism between the Collegium and the executive for judicial appointments can strike a balance between judicial independence and executive involvement.

Advantages of the Collegium System

Judicial Independence

The Collegium system is designed to ensure the judiciary’s independence from the executive branch, safeguarding the separation of powers and preventing political interference in appointments.

Expertise and Meritocracy

It allows senior judges, who are more familiar with the nuances of the legal profession, to assess the competence and suitability of potential appointees, ensuring the selection of deserving candidates based on merit


The Collegium system maintains a degree of confidentiality in its decision-making process, protecting candidates from public scrutiny and undue influences.

Criticisms of the Collegium System

Lack of Transparency

Critics argue that the Collegium system lacks transparency as the selection process takes place behind closed doors without public knowledge of the criteria used for appointments.

Collegium’s Opaqueness

The system has faced criticism for being an “old boys’ club,” with decisions perceived to be influenced by personal relationships and subjective considerations rather than transparent and objective criteria.

Absence of Accountability

Unlike the NJAC, the Collegium system does not provide for any external oversight or accountability, leading to concerns about the lack of checks and balances.

Regional Imbalances

Critics have raised concerns about regional representation in judicial appointments, with certain regions or states being overrepresented or underrepresented in the higher judiciary.

Landmark judgment

Landmark judgment related to the Collegium system of judicial appointments

First Judges Case (S.P. Gupta vs. Union of India, 1981)

The First Judges Case established the principle that the President (executive) has the power to appoint judges to the higher judiciary. It ruled that the Chief Justice of India’s (CJI) recommendation is not binding on the executive, and the President can use their discretion in making appointments.

Second Judges Case (Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association vs. Union of India, 1993)

The Second Judges Case overturned the decision of the First Judges Case and introduced the Collegium system. It held that the CJI, along with a collegium of senior judges, should have a significant say in judicial appointments and transfers. The collegium’s recommendations would have primacy over the executive’s views.

Third Judges Case (Advocates-on-Record Association vs. Union of India, 1998)

The Third Judges Case clarified the composition of the Collegium and emphasized that the CJI’s opinion is binding in matters of judicial appointments and transfers. The collegium was expanded to include the four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court, besides the CJI.

Fourth Judges Case (Re: Special Reference No. 1 of 1998, 1999)

The Fourth Judges Case reaffirmed and clarified the position of the CJI as the “Master of the Roster.” It granted the CJI the authority to assign cases to different benches and allocate judicial work within the Supreme Court.

These cases collectively have shaped the process of judicial appointments and the functioning of the Indian judiciary, with the introduction of the Collegium system being the most significant development in ensuring judicial independence and reducing executive interference in appointments.


The Collegium system of judicial appointments remains a subject of intense debate and introspection. While it seeks to protect judicial independence, its opacity and lack of accountability have drawn criticism. Striking the right balance between maintaining judicial autonomy and incorporating transparent and merit-based selection processes is crucial for upholding the integrity and credibility of India’s judiciary.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Collegium system of judicial appointments?

The Collegium system is a mechanism used in India for appointing and elevating judges to the higher judiciary, including the Supreme Court and High Courts. It involves a group of senior judges, led by the Chief Justice of India (CJI), who collectively decide on judicial appointments and elevations based on the candidates’ qualifications, merit, and suitability.

How does the Collegium system ensure judicial independence?

The Collegium system is designed to safeguard the independence of the judiciary from the executive branch of the government. By giving the judiciary a significant say in the appointment process, it reduces the potential for political interference and ensures that appointments are made based on the candidates’ legal expertise and competence rather than political considerations.

What are the criticisms of the Collegium system?

The Collegium system has faced criticism for its lack of transparency and accountability. The decision-making process takes place behind closed doors, and there is limited public knowledge about the criteria used for appointments. Critics argue that the system lacks diversity and representation, leading to concerns about regional imbalances and potential biases in selections. There have been calls for reform to make the Collegium system more transparent and inclusive.

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